Water conservation efforts at USC fall into four areas of focus:
- use of drought-tolerant plants and in-ground irrigation in all non-turf, non-park/play spaces and outdoor recreation areas
- installation of high-efficiency, low-flow water fixtures throughout all campus buildings
- building out the “purple pipe” infrastructure needed to receive and distribute recycled water from the city for irrigation and industrial uses
- stormwater capture/infiltration
USC Water Conservation Initiatives
Drought Tolerant Landscaping
Wherever possible, drought-tolerant plants are being incorporated on the University Park Campus and the Health Sciences Campus. These landscaping changes have already yielded up to 43 percent water savings for the converted areas.
Proposals for additional drought-tolerant plant conversions are reviewed by Facilities Management Services on an ongoing basis.
At the Health Sciences Campus, a major beautification project now underway is adding many native and drought-tolerant plants and local trees. Although non-native plants are sometimes used in USC landscaping for aesthetic reasons and to promote disease resistance, they tend to be drought-tolerant species from climates and soils similar to Southern California’s.
Much of the non-turf landscaping area on the University Park Campus already uses drip irrigation, and a large-scale conversion is currently underway in Boyle Heights. When completed, three-quarters of the landscaping around the Health Sciences Campus will be watered by drip systems. This conversion project, now past the half-way mark, will greatly improve USC’s water efficiency.
Here’s how: A 180-degree spray head blasts out roughly 2 gallons of water per minute. A drip emitter, by contrast, trickles out approximately 0.6 gallons of water per hour, directly onto the target watering area, with no overspray and much less evaporation than watering with a spray head.
The difference: 120 gallons versus 0.5 gallons of water per hour.
Approximately 85 percent of the irrigation at UPC utilizes central irrigation controllers and weather-based sensors.
The Health Sciences Campus is currently converting irrigation zones to have more sensors and central controllers. Approximately 75 percent of the HSC Campus is now on drip irrigation.
Over both campuses, Facilities Management Services currently maintains 30 area system controllers, 25 of which are “smart” CALSENSE units. FMS plans to convert the remaining 5 area controllers to CALSENSE units by 2020-22.
Low-Flow Water Fixtures
Since 2015, Facilities Management Services and USC Housing have been replacing old water fixtures across the University Park Campus with new, efficient low-flow fixtures. The university’s Sustainability 2020 Plan calls for all outdated faucets and showerheads to be updated.
Keck Hospital Water Fixture Program
Partnering with WaterSavers consulting, Keck Hospital installed over 1,600 flow restrictors on sinks in the hospital as well as replacing 259 showerheads and 79 dialysis flow restrictors.
To encourage student residents to use water more efficiently, USC Housing has installed shower timers in all university-owned apartments and suite style bathrooms.
Recycled Water Utilization
USC supports the city’s Downtown Recycling Project No. 51066. In partnership with the L.A. Department of Water and Power, this “purple pipe” project will bring recycled water to the University Park Campus for irrigation and industrial uses. Over 90% of the primary pipe has been completed at the UPC campus. The final recycled water main distribution piping sections along Childs Way (see Map) were completed during winter break in 2018. USC is now waiting for the City to deliver recycled water to the UPC campus (ETA 2024), at which point the University will complete the recycled water piping for site specific irrigation and cooling tower distribution.
USC Village Stormwater Capture/Infiltration
The Urban Land Institute’s Center for Sustainability and Economic Performance spotlighted the USC Village’s rainwater capture design as a model case study in its 2017 report, Harvesting the Value of Water (see page 16). The project consists of six 26,000-cubic-foot dry wells that run rainwater through a three-stage filtration system before sending it to the groundwater aquifer. In an extreme area of water events, this capture system is an important part of USC’s resilience planning.
Since 2012, all new building construction (over 500 square feet) has met the city’s Low Impact Development (LID) requirements to recharge the groundwater aquifer with stormwater from a 24-Hour 85th Percentile Storm. That translates to 28 stormwater systems on the University Park Campus.
The following facilities have LID infiltration systems:
|Archimedes Plaza||King-Stoops Hall (University Club)|
|Childs Way Hardscape – Trousdale to Pardee||McClintock Hardscape – Jefferson to Childs Way|
|Childs Way Hardscape – Marks Hall||Michelson Hall|
|Childs Way Hardscape – McClintock to Trousdale||School of Cinematic Arts, bldgs. B, C, D, E, I|
|Dauterive Hall||Shrine Parking Structure|
|David Marks Tennis Stadium||Tutor Campus Center|
|Denny Research Center||University Village Buildings|
|Downey Way/McClintock Hardscape||Uytengsu Aquatics Center|
|Engemann Student Health Center||Vermont/Jefferson Parking Lot (1)|
|Fertitta Hall||Wallis Annenberg Hall|
|John McKay Center||Zemeckis Center for Digital Arts|
|Kaufman International Dance Center||Parking Lot 2 (between SGM, GFS & HNB)|
Campus buildings constructed between 2000-12 met the city’s Standard Urban Stormwater Mitigation Plan (SUSMP), the precursor to the LID ordinance. SUSMP standards apply to the following facilities:
|Arts and Humanities Residential College at Parkside||Irani Hall|
|Cinematic Arts Building A||Technical Theatre Laboratory|
|Figueroa Street Parking Structure||Tutor Hall|
|Flower Street Parking Center||USC Credit Union|
State and Local Water Regulations
Pertinent regulations that shape USC’s efforts include:
- AB 1688 – This bill would require the State Water Resources Control Board, in coordination with the Department of Water Resources, to adopt long-term standards for the efficient use of water, and establish performance measures for commercial, industrial, and institutional water use on or before June 30, 2022. The bill would establish 55 gallons per capita daily as the standard for indoor residential water use, beginning January 1, 2025.
Planning for Sustainability 2028
As the university begins the process of developing its Sustainability 2028 Plan, we must fully explore the feasibility of achieving net-zero water consumption. In preparing our plan proposal, stakeholders must factor in the following:
- LADWP has no plan to bring recycled water to the Health Sciences Campus.
- The groundwater table on the Health Sciences Campus is too high to allow for stormwater infiltration, so the university captures and treats the water before sending it into the city’s storm drain system.
- Annual rainfall in Los Angeles is insufficient to make a large-scale rainwater capture and re-use storage system financially viable.
- Installing rainwater reclamation and filtration systems under existing buildings can only be implemented on a building-by-building or a 2-5 building group basis, involving approximately 400 individual projects.